Friday, December 27, 2019

America Needs A Better System of Gun Control Essay

Gun control has become an increasingly controversial topic in the nation due to the continuous debates relating to gun control and whether or not laws should be passed to make it harder for guns to be obtained. Guns serve for a variety of purposes that range from good to bad. Guns are not for everyone. Some individuals cannot handle guns properly, and some choose to use guns inappropriately. Lately, guns have become more of a problem in our society. There has been an increasing amount of shootings that have taken many lives and have wounded people emotionally, not just physically. Although guns are used for protection, firearms are reportedly used more in crimes. More and more shootings are breaking out across the nation. As a result, the†¦show more content†¦The reason why our nation is allowed to bear a large quantity of firearms is due to the Second Amendment of our constitution, which specifically states, A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a fre e State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed. (U.S. Const. am. 2) Because of how vague this amendment is when it comes to law interpretation, it is often used by gun advocates to argue for lenient gun laws. Even though the Second Amendment prevents the federal government from completely banning guns in America, there are still restrictions on the distribution and possession of firearms. Each of the states have their own specific gun laws but generally, a person must obtain a license or permit to purchase or possess a firearm. Also, another thing to note is that all states allow some form of concealed carry, which is carrying a concealed firearm in public. Despite the laws that allow the bearing and distribution of guns, society has multiple viewpoints concerning the usage and appropriateness of the freedom of having the right to bear arms. The Gun Control Act of 1968 is a federal law that basically regulates the gun industry. The purpose of this fe deral firearms regulation is to assist Federal, State, and local law enforcement in the ongoing effort to reduce crime and violence (Gun Control Overview). The Gun Control Act of 1968 was amended by the Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act. In thisShow MoreRelatedPersuasive Essay On Gun Control1018 Words   |  5 PagesImagine, an America where no citizen, law abiding or not, has the legal ability to own guns. Three gunmen with fully automatic rifles walk into a crowded city and begin firing. No law abiding citizen can defend themselves. It’s hopeless. This future can only be prevented if Americans continue to keep the second amendment. We should keep the current gun control laws, but revise them to make them even better. Most gun owners are responsible under the current laws, however, I think some laws need to be stricterRead MoreGun Control1030 Words   |  5 PagesGarcia English 1301 Instructor: Nancy Cassano Essay 2 2/13/2013 Gun Control in America The United States government should have the authority to restrict and regulate American citizens from buying or owning firearms. Gun Control laws are necessary in a state because they decrease violence and increase government protection in the state. Gun laws are the cause of much violent crime in America, and they need to be changed to better background checks, tracking the movement and sale of weapons, andRead MoreGun Control Laws Should Have A Good Middle Balance1569 Words   |  7 PagesWhile some people say it takes away their rights , Gun control is a good thing because Less crimes will be committed by firearms, Gun control is good for everyone s safety , and Countries with stricter gun control has less death by firearms .America has the highest amount of gun related deaths each year in the world. â€Å"In Germany 381, in France 255, in Canada 165 in the United Kingdom 68, in Australia 65, in Japan 39 and in the United States, 11,127† (Moore Michael, 51:15-51:48). Since the UnitedRead MoreThe Highest Amount Of Gun Control Laws1362 Words   |  6 PagesDaniel Danzo Research Paper America has the highest amount of gun related deaths each year in the world. â€Å"In Germany 381, in France 255, in Canada 165 in the United Kingdom 68, in Australia 65, in Japan 39 and in the United States, 11,127† (Moore Michael, 51:15-51:48). Since the United States has the highest number of deaths, it is important to have gun-control laws that restrict people from owning dangerous firearms like machine guns. Gun-control laws should support both sides of the debate. OfRead MoreAmerica Needs Gun Control Essay1149 Words   |  5 PagesFor years proposals for gun control and the ownership of firearms have been among the most controversial issues in modern American politics. The public debate over guns in the United States is often seen as having two side. Some people passionately assert that the Second Amendment protects an individuals right to own guns while others assert that the Second Amendment does no more than protect the right of states to maintain militias. There ar e many people who insist that the Constitution is a livingRead MoreGun Control Laws Should Have A Balance1439 Words   |  6 PagesAmerica has the highest amount of gun related deaths each year in the world. â€Å"In Germany 381, in France 255, in Canada 165 in the United Kingdom 68, in Australia 65, in Japan 39 and in the United States, 11,127† (Moore Michael, 51:15-51:48). Since the United States has the highest number of deaths, it is important to have gun-control laws that restrict people from owning dangerous firearms like machine guns. Gun-control laws should support both sides of the debate. Of course, both sides will notRead More Michael Moore ´s Bowling For Columbine Essay972 Words   |  4 Pagesabout gun violence in America. Michael Moore is successful in showing that America has been going through many gun tragedies; and portrays the sense that America’s problems are out of control. He conveys this through informative facts, images, and comparisons. Throughout the film Michael Moore throws many cold facts on the screen that makes it obvious that the strong nation of America is unruly. One of the facts that stand out the most is the number of deaths caused by guns in America perRead MoreGun Control Regulations Should Be Banned Essay1535 Words   |  7 PagesGun violence in recent years has increased significantly in various parts of the word. Most often the ones caught in the crossfire are children and young adults; who are also perpetrators. The question every wants to know is: Are gun laws, strict enough and what else can be done to reduce such violence from occurring. This is the debate that lobbyist and government officials have been arguing over for years. With more lives being affected on a regular basis, the increase concerns arise as to howRead MoreThe Issue Of Gun Control Essay1499 Words   |  6 Pagespeople die from guns than from car accidents. In 2016 alone, there have been 1,622 accidental shootings and 515 o f those shootings have involved children (Barone 1). As of 2009, there has been 310 million handguns circulating the United States (Barone 1). This is why the topic of gun rights has slowly become one of the most popular and controversial topics in today s society. The big problem regarding gun rights is that the nation is split when it comes to wehter or not gun control should be enforcedRead MoreThe Gun Control Laws Is The National Firearms Act Of 19341347 Words   |  6 Pagesâ€Å"The left, liberals, believe that if we just have more gun control laws, all the problems are going to go away. Well, I don t think so. I don t think so. I think - yes, it will, it will be reduced. There s no question about that.† (brainquotes). The earliest federal gun-control law was the National Firearms Act of 1934, which restrictive $200 tax on the manufacture or sale of machine guns and sawed-off shotguns. All sales were to be recorded in a national registry. Franklin D. Roosevelt wanted

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Morris - 3143 Words

Case 19 | Morris de Minas | By Ian H. Giddy | Vijak Pongtippun Viwan Wongviriyawong Wenyu | Introduction In August 1984, Morris Mini Mainframe Computer Company in New Jersey was looking for the most desirable financing alternative for Morris de Minas Ltda, its Brazilian affiliate, in the working capital needs of 82,650 million cruzeiros or US $39,320,000; at the exchange rate of 2,102 cruzeiros per US dollar. David Albuquerque, the vice-president of finance for the Latin American Division, was in charge of exploring possible financing arrangements and preparing a financing alternative plan. Albuquerque believed that Brazilian expected inflation rate and tax legislation, and the future exchange rate would play major roles†¦show more content†¦However, the economy recovered rapidly during 1968 to 1973 with averaging over 10 percent per annum. The GDP also increased at a rate above 5 percent per annum between 1974 and 1980, except for 1978 (see Exhibit 2). However, Brazil had incurred an extremely high level of indebtedness due to the support of this massive developme nt program. The high interest rates on dollar funds and the unwillingness of foreign lenders to advance additional loans caused a deep economic recession in Brazil. Interest rates directly affect the credit market (loans) because higher interest rates make borrowing more costly. As a result, Brazilian government who aimed to balance the payment had to ask the International Monetary Fund (IMF) for funds. Exhibit 2: Morris de Minas, Brazil’s Gross Domestic Product | 1979 | 1980 | 1981 | 1982 | 1983 | Total (CR $ billions) | | | | | | At Current Prices | 6,239 | 13,104 | 26,833 | 53,150 | 130,805 | Real Increase (%) | 6.8 | 7.9 | -1.9 | 1.4 | -3.3 | Per Capita (CR $ thousands) | | | | | | At Current Prices | 54 | 110 | 220 | 425 | 1,021 | Real Increase (%) | 4.2 | 5.4 | -4.1 | -0.8 | -5.4 | As the export performance of BrazilShow MoreRelatedEssay on William Morris841 Words   |  4 PagesWilliam Morris William Morris (1834 – 1896) was perhaps the most important British decorative artist of the 19th century. A prolific designer, craftsman and decorator, his work and ideas have had a major influence on the development of modern interior design. William Morris was one of the most influential figures in the Victorian and Edwardian art world. As a young man at Oxford he became involved with the Pre-Raphaelite movements, mixing with such artists as Dante Gabriel Rossetti, William HolmanRead MoreEssay about William Morris596 Words   |  3 PagesWilliam Morris William Morris, English poet, artist, socialist reformer, and innovator in the Arts and Crafts Movement. He was born in Walthamstow, then a village, and moved to a grand residence there called Water House at the age of 14 - this has since become the William Morris Gallery. He studied at Oxford with the intention of becoming a clergyman, but while there he met Edward Coley Burne-Jones, also studying for the church, and they both began to turn towards art. They were persuaded by RossettiRead MoreMy Dog Skip By Willie Morris1483 Words   |  6 Pages Willie Morris’ book, My Dog Skip is a story about growing up with a dog and how it can teach a child many lessons. Set in Yazoo, Mississippi in the 1940s, Willie Morris gets a dog for his ninth birthday. He names the Jack Russell Terrier Skip and the two become inseparable. Willie and Skip go everywhere together, even to school. They also go around town together, visiting stores and going hunting, and they even sleep in the same bed. Skip is an extremely loyal and disciplined dog. One day, SkipRead MoreThe Grand Canyon By Henry Morris1449 Words   |  6 PagesCentury alternative belief to evolution is scientific creationism. This became prevalent through the leading institute for promoting, forming, and researching the doctrine of scientific creationism: the Institute of Creation Research led by Henry Morris. One of the major research projects that the institute started was the Grand Canyon Dating Project arguing that the Grand Canyon was formed by a catastrophic event: the Flood. Scientific creationism was popularized by different individuals in theRead MoreThe Thin Blue Line Directed By Errol Morris905 Words   |  4 PagesWhat Is the Truth â€Å"Our need to believe what we want to believe is stronger than our need for the truth.† I agree with this quote based on personal experience. The movie, The Thin Blue Line directed by Errol Morris, is an example of believing in what we want rather than the truth. Randall Adams a wrongly convicted man, David Harris a criminal let off the hook, and people such as Marshall Touchton and Melvyn Carson Bruder gives support to this belief. Randall Adams is the epitome of being in theRead MoreThe Philip Morris Tobacco Company Essay1887 Words   |  8 PagesPhillip Morris Phillip Morris The Philip Morris tobacco company started in 1847 on a small street in London (Sanders, Wisse, Van, 2015). One of the primary goals is to be a socially creditworthy company, at both local and global level. Consequently this is the reason Philip Morris had passion for social performance. They began as a very small family business specializing in hand rolled cigarettes. In 1902, the company moved to New York City and merged. Even though the company stayed small by 1960Read MorePhilip Morris Ethical Issues Essay2355 Words   |  10 Pages Philip Morris International Inc. Cigarettes an Ethical Dilemma For a Prosperous Company By Matthew Murray Table of Contents Company Overview Company Success and Campaigns Tobacco Regulation and Effect on the Company An Ethical Look on an â€Å"Evil† Company Philip Morris and Positive Ethical Behavior Company Views and the Utilitarian Approach The Fact of the Matter for Philip Morris In Conclusion References Company Overview The Philip Morris founded a cigaretteRead MoreCulture War : The Myth Of A Polarized America, Morris P. Fiorina1007 Words   |  5 PagesIn her book, Culture War? The Myth of a Polarized America, Morris P. Fiorina talks of the lack of polarization in today’s politics. â€Å"The â€Å"culture war† refers to a displacement of the classic economic conflicts that animated twentieth- century politics in the advanced democracies by newly emergent moral and religious ones† (Fiorina, Abrams, Pope, 2005, p. 2). Fiorina argues that this phenomenon does not exist; her argument under is persuasive for many reasons. I see the following as the main reasons:Read MorePhillip Morris11017 Words   |  45 PagesUVA-F-478 Rev. 18 de Julio de 2005. Philip Morris, Inc.: La adquisicià ³n de Seven - Up. La decisià ³n estaba tomada. Philip Morris, Inc. (PM) a travà ©s de su directorio harà ­a una oferta para tomar el control de la compaà ±Ãƒ ­a Seven-Up. Las dificultades y enredos de esta decisià ³n palidecà ­an, sin embargo, al enfrentarse a la siguiente pregunta:  ¿A quà © precio se deberà ­a hacer la oferta? Era la segunda mitad de abril de 1978, y enfrentando un mercado muy activo en fusiones y adquisiciones, PM reconocà ­aRead MorePhillip Morris11001 Words   |  45 PagesUVA-F-478 Rev. 18 de Julio de 2005. Philip Morris, Inc.: La adquisicià ³n de Seven - Up. La decisià ³n estaba tomada. Philip Morris, Inc. (PM) a travà ©s de su directorio harà ­a una oferta para tomar el control de la compaà ±Ãƒ ­a Seven-Up. Las dificultades y enredos de esta decisià ³n palidecà ­an, sin embargo, al enfrentarse a la siguiente pregunta:  ¿A quà © precio se deberà ­a hacer la oferta? Era la segunda mitad de abril de 1978, y enfrentando un mercado muy activo en fusiones y adquisiciones, PM reconocà ­a la

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

American Pop Artist Andy Warhol Essay Example For Students

American Pop Artist: Andy Warhol Essay Warhol was an American Pop artist, from 1928-1987. A pop artist is an artist who has a style that explores the everyday imagery that is part of modern consumer culture. Using things like consumer product packaging, celebrities, comic strips, and advertisements. Other pop artists are Robert Reassurances and Roy Liechtenstein. Andy Warhol was born on August 6, 1928 in Pittsburgh Pennsylvania. Warhol died in New York on February 27, 1387 after a gallbladder operation. Andy Warhol was a very influential artist. His early works Of pop art came in 1962 with his Coca-Cola Bottles and in 1954 with his sculptures of Brills Boxes. Andy Whorls pop art work brought appreciation from all over the world. Andy Warhol had many other works of art, which were on more serious things. Jacqueline Kennedy was in 1963, over the sadness for President John Kennedy, also in 1964 Birmingham Race Riot, in 1983 Warhol made Endangered Species prints, which had Pine Barrens Tree Frog Orangutan and Bald Eagle were all inspiring works of art that Andy Warhol created. On 1968 Andy Warhol was shot by Valerie Solaris, while on his studio filming a motion pictures about boredom and repetition. Valerie Solaria was the founder and also only member possum (Society for Cutting LIP Men), Valises attack was almost deadly, but Andy Warhol recovered. I, myself am glad that Warhol was not killed because he produced many great works of art after this attack. Believe Andy Warhol was a successful artist and did inspire many people in his pop art,

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

What makes a good meal an Example by

What makes a good meal A good meal is one that has the desirable qualities which distinguish it from ordinary meals (American Heritage Dictionary). Need essay sample on "What makes a good meal" topic? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you Proceed Therefore, a good meal should be tasteful, healthy and nicely served. This includes proper selection of ingredients, food preparation, cooking, garnishing and presentation and considering the time and environment of the meal. Making a good meal starts by selection of ingredients. Always select canned and dried food first. Cans should be intact i.e. no bulging, leaking or dentations. Sell-by date should be looked for in every purchase. Dry food (e.g. spices) should be well contained or enveloped (air-tight) to keep the flavor and aroma. The second purchase is for fresh vegetables and green herbs (e.g. parsley, green beans). Green vegetables should be vividly green with no yellow patches on leaves. The package should be uniform with no other herbs included. Finally, refrigerated food, poultry, fish or meat are the last to be selected. Any purchase that is felt worm to touch or packed in a leaking package should be discarded. Once at home, preparation of the meal starts by proper handli ng. The main objective is to prevent a possible food poisoning that may result from growth of bacteria. Therefore, always keep the food in the refrigerator till its use, keep every thing clean (utensils, hands, towels, cutting boards) and do not allow juices of fish, poultry or meat to reach readily prepared other ingredients. Marinating serves the purpose of tenderizing the meat so it cooks faster and become juicier. The basic elements of a marinade are a mixture of vinegar and/or lemon juice, a finely chopped onion, herbs and spices. Additional elements are added according to what is marinated are yogurt or wine for poultry, olive oil for fish and Soy sauce for meat. Spices (the dried parts of aromatic plants except the leaves) can be hot as dried hot chilies, black or white pepper or ginger or they can be mild as dry coriander. Fresh herbs (basil, mint, parsley) and spices serve to change basic foods into flavored ones. The best marinating methods is to put the marinade and the ingred ient in a nylon bag, mix well then squeeze to get the air out, tightly seal and put in the fridge for 2-4 hours. A good delicious meal does not necessarily mean that it should be unhealthy. A report released by the American Heart Association, the American Cancer Society, the American Academy of pediatrics and the National Institutes of Health; stated six rules for a healthy diet namely: A variety of food, mostly of plant origin should be included. A meal is to include starch in the form of bread, rice, pasta or cereals. A meal is to have low fat content ( Cooking methods are many. They include baking, boiling, grilling, roasting and steaming. Choosing a particular method depends on the flavors and nutrients one wants to keep without adding or consuming extra amounts of fat. Baking is used for cooking bread, potato and sweat potato in addition to poultry and fish. The concluding step of preparing a good meal is presentation. It does not only mean garnishing and preparing the plate, but it should occupy the five senses of the guest. Seeing or garnishing the plate, table clothes, and possibly flowers and/or candles. Accompanying soft music should occupy the sense of hearing. Smelling the aroma of the food, tasting the meal and the served beverage and touching whatever he/she can reach. The most important single item is garnishing the plate and it should start by the ingredients of the meal itself as regards colors texture of sauces and fresh green or colored vegetables added at the end. As regards the rim or edge of the plate, it can be decorated using a pt of red, yellow and green pepper or use cut pieces of vegetables (carrot, potato, or green beans) that are geometrically matching the main item in the plate. Always keep in mind that the additions should add color, flavor and preferably nutritious value to the meal. To practically apply the principles discussed, a baked fish fillet meal will be described: Selection: A good fish fillet is characterized by being moist, firm and elastic. It should have a fresh mild odor (fish odor comes with time). It should have fresh non colored or dry cut edges. Preparation: If fish fillet is bought frozen, it should be allowed to thaw gradually. Avoid thawing in room temperature. Ingredients: 1- Two tablespoons of olive oil. 2- Half a cup of finely chopped onion and another half a cup of chopped green bell pepper. 3- One tablespoon of all purpose flour. 4- Half tablespoon of fried marjoram leaves and a quarter tablespoon of thyme leaves. 5- One can of canned tomatoes. 6- One pound (4 pieces) of cod fish fillet. 7- Salt and black pepper to taste. Cooking: Put olive oil in a pan over medium heat. Put the chopped onion and stir till it becomes pinkish, then add green bell pepper. Add marjoram, thyme, salt and black pepper. Add the canned tomatoes gradually. Stir till the sauce is thickened. Get a baking dish, brush it with olive oil, and arrange the fish. Add the sauce and put in a preheated oven (400 degrees F) for 12-15 minutes. Works Cited American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. 4th edition. Pub. Houghton Mifflin e-reference. Tanne, J. H. One diet fits all. BMJ, 1999. 318: 1646

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Improvement in Operational Efficiency Due free essay sample

IT Investments ply chain integration; and euro conversion. Many IT landmarks have been achieved during this period: more than 4 billion Web pages on the Internet; creation of software to combat cyber worms, viruses, and warfare; millions of distributed databases; and widespread utilization of data warehouses and data mining for decision support systems. To support these IT initiatives and to achieve these landmarks, IT budgets of most companies during this decade Copyright  © 2006, Idea Group Inc. Copying or distributing in print or electronic forms without written permission of Idea Group Inc. is prohibited. Information Resources Management Journal, 19(2), 18-36, April-June 2006 19 increased substantially (Seewald, 2002). There is, however, a growing criticism of escalating IT investments (Mears Dubie, 2002) and their lack of justification (Krochmel, 1999). ERP systems are software systems to support and to automate the business processes, providing timely and accurate enterprise-wide information for decision making. ERP systems have a long history of evolution. The production scheduling, material ordering, and product shipment systems evolved from manual reorder point systems for material procurement to computerized Materials Requirement Planning (MRP) to Manufacturing Resource Planning (MRP-II) systems that integrated MRP and capacity requirements planning to Manufacturing Execution Systems (MES) that further integrated MRP-II and shop floor and device control systems, and finally to ERP systems. We will write a custom essay sample on Improvement in Operational Efficiency Due or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Much of the streamlining of materials procurement process was achieved by MRP and MRP-II. By the late 1980s, tens of thousands of firms were using MRP-II systems (Rondeau Litteral, 2001). The SAP R/3 modules and submodules consisting of sales and distribution, materials management, warehouse management, quality management, production planning for process industries, financial accounting, controlling, project system, and office communication were expected to reduce inventories, improve cash management, and cut down operating expenses. Kalling (2003) recently provided a theoretical framework in which resource-based views (RBV) are advanced to understand how ERP can provide sustainable competitive advantage. The RBV is not universally accepted as a final explanation of competitive advantage. Some believe that dynamic capabilities, not resources, are the source of competitive advantage. It is possible that ERP provides both unique resources as well as dynamic capabilities in the form of improved information and decision making to improve competitive advantage. Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Systems To avoid struggling with integrating myriad IT applications, many companies implemented ERP systems that required substantial investment of time, internal resources, and capital, resulting in significant organizational change (Dorien Wolf, 2002). Often, ERP system implementation is accompanied by other improvements and enhancements in existing legacy systems. Due to many simultaneous changes that accompany ERP system implementation, it is hard to attribute any performance changes after ERP system installation solely to ERP systems. However, ERP system implementation is, by far, the most criticized aspect of IT investments. ERP systems require outlays ranging from a few million dollars to several hundred million dollars (Mabert et al. , 2001). Despite high expenditures, ERP implementations have resulted in problems. Rushed software installations and inadequate training are blamed for well-publicized troubles with ERP. In 1999, soon after the rollout of its ERP system, Hershey Food Corp. , in the third quarter of that year, lost $60. 4 million due to problems in customer service, warehousing, order processing, and timely shipments to retailers. ERP implementation problems of Whirlpool Corporation and W. L. Gore Associates Inc. also have received considerable attention (Collett, 1999). The bankruptcy of FoxMeyer (a drug distribution company) in 1996 is directly attributed by many to flawed implementation of ERP systems. www. igi-global. com/article/improvement-operational-efficiency-due-erp/1289 www. igi-global. com/chapter/tutor/13373 www. igi-global. com/chapter/object-database-benchmarks/14575

Saturday, November 23, 2019

The Veil and Muslim

The Veil and Muslim Introduction Islamic women have worn the veil since time immemorial. The debate on whether the use of the veil does any good to the society has always existed since prehistoric times and it exists even today. This paper discusses how the veil became the symbol of Muslim civilization, what the veil meant to Islamic reformists and the clarity of the authors arguments.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The Veil and Muslim specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The veil and Muslim civilization It can be argued that the veil was introduced by early Greek priests due to their faulty interpretation of the Islamic law. The earlier perception about women was so negative to the point that some people were quoted claiming that women were without soul. The veil portrayed the Islamic woman as inferior and without much purpose in the society in the old days. Since the civilization of any society is largely dependent on how all members of the society treat each other, then the cruel treatment of Islamic woman by the society as was usual in Egypt was a good measure of the pace of Muslim civilization. Most of the modernists and reformists that campaigned for fair treatment of the woman in the Islam community based most of their arguments on the use of the veil. This was due to the fact that the veil was associated with oppression of women. One of the reformists was quoted arguing that the Muslim woman was poorly mistreated in terms of empowerment through education, important roles in the society, her role in the family and most importantly the veil which was seen as a tool of alienation of the woman from the society. The veil was associated with all the bad things such as dirt, unattractiveness and other negative things. The plight of Islamic women was attributed to Islamic religion which people saw as burying the woman alive behind the veil. The Islamic woman also looked at the other societies of the world especially Christians who treated their women with respect and dignity. They were the only community in the world that covered their women inside a veil. Since the veil was associated with oppression then with time it became the symbol of Muslim civilization (Ahmed 1). What the veil meant to colonial reformists The colonial reformists were looking at liberating the Islamic community from the traditional setting to a more modern society that could fit with the other communities of the world. They saw that the biggest barrier to reforms was the way the Islamic community was treating their women.Advertising Looking for essay on ethnicity studies? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The veil was associated with all the degradation to women and as such they saw that the best way to liberate the society was to put pressure on the issue of the veil. The reformists saw the veil as a symbol of oppression. By comparing the veiled Muslim woma n with other liberated societies there was clear evidence to support their argument so that they would be successful in their reforms (Ahmed 1). Clarity of the authors’ arguments I agree with the way the author argues about the issue of the plight of the Muslim woman in the historic times and how the reformists handled the reform agenda by focusing on the treatment given to the Muslim woman. The author was able to clearly link the origin of the veil, the oppression of the Muslim woman and how the reformists handled the reform of the Muslim society by focusing on the veil. Conclusion The veil issue is a very important aspect of the Muslim community for a very long time. The veil was used as a reform tool by early reformists especially in Egypt due to its relationship with oppression of women. The author was able to show clearly the way reformists viewed and argued about the veil and oppression of women and how the Islam community could be reformed by focusing on the issue of t he veil. Work Cited Ahmed, Leila. Women and Gender in Islam. Yale University, 1992. New Haven: Prentice.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Financial Management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Financial Management - Essay Example The data provided herewith were taken from sources of good repute. They unanimously illustrate the leadership of DIS in its sector and industry, and they altogether declare that DIS is a strategic buy at its current price range. Prospects for the US economy remains bleak as indicators currently report no improvement since the year 2007 when the downturn first set in. Since 2006, GDP has been decreasing year-on-year and all other economic variables have depicted the same economically bleak scenario. In 2008, the annual averages of the benchmark treasury rates and the federal fund rates have been lowered to 1.37 and 1.92, respectively, while the unemployment rate increased to 7.2%. In March 2009, the benchmark treasury rate and the federal fund rate were as low as 0.21 and 0.18, respectively, while the unemployment rate increased further to 8.5%. It should not be surprising that the series of disasters in the economic arena dealt a heavy blow to the overall investors' confidence in the financial markets. In the year 2008, the market indices took such drastic plunges that badly damaged the market valuation of listed companies - Dow Jones decreased by 35%, S&P 500 decreased by 39%, and NASDAQ decreased by 42%. The first quarter of the year 2009 further lowered Dow Jones to 7,608.92, S&P 500 to 797.87 and NASDAQ to 1528.59. (AOL Website) Despite the turmoil in the economy and in the financial markets, Walt Disney Company (DIS) has managed to do very well in 2008. Next to Time Warner Inc. (TWX), DIS is the second largest multimedia conglomerate in the world in terms of assets. It is into the production of movies, music, and television shows, the publishing of its renowned materials and the operation of its well-frequented theme parks. While shares of its holding company are traded in NYSE, Disneyland Corporation's subsidiaries are variously traded in the Buenos Aires stock market and in European bourses such as XETRA, Berlin, Stuttgart, Paris, Munich, Hanover, London and Paris. (Yahoo! Finance) Since January 2000, Robert A. Iger has been the company's President and Chief Executive Officer. (2008 Walt Disney Co Annual Report) Under his efficient leadership, DIS has come up with sales amounting to $37.8 billion and with a net income of $4.4 billion in 2008 - an impressive feat in the light of the prevailing economic scenario. DIS has over 150,000 employees and has assets worth over $64.9 billion as of the year-end of 2008. As of 01 May 2009, DIS has market capitalization amounting to over $40.73 billion. (Yahoo! Finance) Compared to its competitors, DIS also has done a lot better in the stock market. Comparing their 2008 year-end prices with their 2006 year-end prices, losses were computed at 33% for DIS, 73% for CBS Corporation (CBS), 56% for News Corporation (NWS), and 53% for (TWX). Their respective closing prices as of the end of April 2009 were

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Self-awareness Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Self-awareness - Essay Example Besides the positive qualities of a leader that were listed by Tichy and Devanna such as the willingness to decide and capacity to do so, persuasiveness, responsibility, intellectual capacity, vitality and endurance (34-38); I would also like to develop other qualities to address organizational needs and objectives that will be present in future organizations. Leadership theory There are two leadership theories that are consistent with my development plan or plan of action, and they can best demonstrate my plans as a future leader, one among them is the functional leadership theory. This theory according to Wren is particularly significant when a leader wants to address some of his or her behaviors that are perceived to contribute to organizational or team effectiveness (27-29). This theory supports my plan since it argues that I should do whatever is necessary for my subordinates in order to ensure that the organizational goal is attained and thus, in a way I will be contributing to the team’s effectiveness and cohesion. ... This theory gives me the opportunity to lead a team and if the team conduct itself in a manner that I prescribed, then it will be considered that the organization has been able to attain its goals, which warrant the team members to be reward for their efforts. Personal strengths and weaknesses This course has exposed me to assignments and learning activities that have informed me of my leadership strengthsand weaknesses all together. However, for this research I entirely relied on two tools that I used to identify different aspects about my leadership style that makes it more effective and those that hinder it from attaining absolute perfection. The tools consist of the transformational leadership questionnaire (TLQ) and the assessments that are in leadership theory and practice (LTP). This assessment is made up of eighteen different questions and these questions vary in nature with the leadership competencies they aim at measuring for example the human skill, technical skill or conc eptual skill (Tichy and Devanna, 89-94). Thou I have never pictured myself as a â€Å"people person† the transformational leadership questionnaire showed that my major strengths as a leader are the ability to imagine and share in other people’s feelings and experience, strong follow through, ambitious, compulsive and articulate. These strengths to me mean that I appreciate others and I care for their needs. These strengths also portray me as an effective leader in offering constructive responses to the efforts of my subordinates and that I also boost the confidence of other people, while still conveying enthusiasm. By the simple fact that I am able to offer constructive responses to the efforts of my subordinates it means that I am good in communication. According to Carter, a leader

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Why Chinese Mothers Are Superior Essay Example for Free


Friday, November 15, 2019

Changes in brand image of Toyota

Changes in brand image of Toyota Toyota is one of the top car brands from Japan. They have been one of the biggest automakers in the world. They have been producing automobile for the past 60 years. They have put their brand in the spotlight and they have achieved the consumers trust on their products and brand. Toyota has been profitable from their first creation. Their brand has been well known and used by consumers worldwide. Their quality of product has never disappointed their customers. Their brand image has been built on the safety and reliability of their cars. 2.0 Brakes Malfunction and Sticky Pedal Accelerators In the previous years, Toyota has encountered issues that are similar to year 2009 but in year 2009 they have to announce to their stakeholders that they are calling a major call back on their new hybrid cars Toyota Prius. It is a fully hybrid electric medium build car that has good qualities as it is environmental friendly but it has a big problem. The problems are that the car brakes failed to work the accelerator pedals got stuck. Toyotas taking a huge hit at the moment in terms of their brand image, Mr. Champion said. In January, the problems of sticky accelerator pedals reached almost to 4.5 million vehicles and in November, as many as 5.5 million vehicles with accelerator pedals that could become trapped by the floor mat were called back. Toyota Prius have started been sold in the year 2004 throughout year 2009. These model years are affected by these problems of brake malfunction and the sticky accelerator issue. Toyota has also made a mistake to their stakeholders by not responding to the issue soon enough before the news spreads out to the public. Their Board of Directors should have take action before more complaints are filed. 2.1 Employees The employees that are affected by this issue are the one responsible for assembling and installing the brakes to the vehicle. Their quality check department employees are to be blamed in this matter due to their careless checking. The repairing works begin as soon as the shipments of the parts reached the dealerships. Employees will take at least 25 minutes to completing each repair work. One of the service managers Dave Davis says that Its going to be chaotic, but were doing the best we can. If I have customers until 9 oclock at night, thats how late Ill stay open. This statement proves that employees have to work long hours to finish up the repair works. For the employees that are working in the assembly line, they are under pressured by having to come up with a more dependable fix as soon as possible because the longer they take to find a dependable fix, the longer the assembly line will be idle, the higher the cost of Toyota will be. When the assembly line is idle means that other processes are put on hold, there will be no new car sales probably until Toyota fixes the damaged they have caused to their own company. 2.2 Customers The customers are the people that affected the most due to this mishap. They are at risk of losing their lives when the breaks of their vehicle fail to function as they should. Toyota was aware of the complaints in Japan about the braking problems on their Prius. In the United States, the complaints on the Prius brakes are building up as well. An accident was reported in Japan, suspected to be linked to the brakes not functioning. According to the Japanese Transport Ministry, the accident injured two people as the Prius they were driving crashed into another car head on. (CBSNews Business) 2.4 Shareholders Their shareholders are affected by this issue because they have invested in Toyota for the project of the Prius. When this problem arises their stock prices will fall. Their dividends are automatically affected by this issue. Toyota stocks falls drastically in the Tokyo Stock Exchange, falling 5 percent to 3,230 yen ($35) after dropping 5.7 percent the previous day. When the U.S. call backs were announced in the media, 22 percent of their stocks are lost. 3.0 Importance of Dilemmas After this issue is out in the public, Toyota has admitted to the press that their hybrid car has problems. They have made a major call back of the vehicle globally. As many as 4.5 million units were called back. Toyota is making a decision what any other auto manufacturer would do in this kind of situation. They send out letters to the affected car owners that need to send their vehicle for the call backs. The Toyotas technicians are working hard and working long hours to deal with the high volume repair jobs that are occurring. If the Toyota does not realize how important this issue will affect their company, they will have to suspend the sales of the new car of the affected models that are still at their dealers lots and the new car production will also be temporarily stopped. They must know that this issue is big. 3.1 Employees The production plant in Alabama is shutting down for three months in order to cut the inventory levels but no full time workers were let go. Instead, the part time workers were let go and their overtime were cut. During the three months shut down, Toyota came up with a training, cost cutting and improvement plan for their employees. Jim Bolte the President of a plant in Alabama, United States says that When we made our initial announcement about our non-production time and told our team members that they would not lose their jobs, we could see that many of them maybe didnt believe usà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦. He also added Now they know that when we say things we really mean them. (Reuters) 3.2 Customers After the occurrence issue, Toyota provides free transportation for their customers in the United States to the dealers for repairs that involved in the call backs. They provide this free transportation to those who refuse to drive their call back vehicle to the dealership and also reimbursement for the Toyota owners. At the dealer, they provide a rental car or a pickup and return car at the dealership. They provide a fast service on the repair works and they also give reimbursement to their dealers for the cost of compliance. (Bloomberg Business Week) 3.3 Shareholders The Toyota Motor Corporation President Akio Toyoda bowed and apologized to Toyotas shareholders for causing the biggest global call backs of their vehicles. It was the first time the president of Toyota faces the shareholders since the companys reputation was damaged due to the call backs issue. He says that the company is doing their best to improve their quality control and he is thankful to the shareholders for their support. He adds We believe our most important task is to regain customers trust. (Autos on 3.4 Theory Toyota should know look into the utilitarianism theory. This theory has been used since the eighteenth and nineteenth century philosophy but the idea of this theory is still applicable in the twenty-first century. This theory explains that we should make a decision by considering the consequences of our actions. It means that we should act in ways that produce better out come than the alternative we are considering. In principle it is also known as maximizing the overall good or the greatest good for the greatest number (Hartman P. L. and DesJardins J. 2008). A decision that fulfils all these terms is the right decision to be made ethically. Therefore, Toyota has to figure out what is the best thing to do for the sake of their stakeholders. Thus, by making the right decision they are able to regain their stakeholders trust towards their company. Toyota can use this theory not just to make decision for their current issues but also they can refer it if there is any issue occurred in t he future because it balanced the good over bad for those who are affected (Shaw H. W. and Barry V. 1998). 4.0 Our Principe Toyota believe that theres no best only better. They will keep on getting better for the future. That is why they put their brand message Moving Forward. This message proves how passionate they are for innovation and discovering new ideas and technology. They know that no matter how successful they may get, there will always be new challenges that awaits them in the future. They are focused on the future of the company and their brand. They will not stop pursuing for excellence as they are dedicated to Kaizen which means continuous improvement. By implementing this in their hearts, they are able to give what their customer values the most out of them which are their quality, durability and reliability of the vehicle that they have produced. Even though, currently Toyota is facing some issues on their quality and reliability, they still hold strong on what they believe in which is Kaizen. They are trying their best to regain what they have almost lost from their stakeholders. (Toyota Corporate info) 5.0 Recommendation

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

How does John Steinbeck use animals in ‘Of Mice And Men’? Essay

For the duration of Of Mice And Men, John Steinbeck makes references to animals and animal behaviour in portraying the characteristics of the characters. Not only does he do this, but also uses actual animals as a medium in which to show emotions and symbolisms. It is this theme which I plan to explore in this short essay. In the title of the book, Steinbeck chose to mention mice, taken from part of a poem by Robbie Burns, who wrote: ‘The best laid plans of mice and men Gang aft aglee and leave us naught But grief and pain for promised joy’. This is quite apt considering what happens in the book and it could be said that the book revolves around the poem. Steinbeck lets the reader know that the story will contain animal references from the beginning of the book. On the first page, rabbits are mentioned coming â€Å"out of the brush to sit on the sand in the evening.† Later in the chapter, Lennie says to George, â€Å"I remember about the rabbits, George†, to which George responds, â€Å"The hell with the rabbits. That’s all you ever can remember is them rabbits.† It is strange that rabbits are mentioned both in nature and in converse dialogue in the same section. However, it is not so much the rabbits that Lennie is looking forward to, but the dream of something better, his ideal world. George takes it upon himself to ground Lennie, bringing him back to reality. Their relationship is complex and we only get glimpses of their history together. This technique is used by the author so that the reader can come up with their own interpretations. Lennie is described further on â€Å"dragging his feet a little, the way a bear drags his paws†, creating imagery that Lennie is like a bear. When the majority of people hear the word ‘bear’, they immediately think ‘vicious’, ‘ferocious’, or even ‘wild’. Steinbeck makes it clear that Lennie is none of these things but is in fact a gentle giant who is unaware of the impression he makes upon others. The imagery of a bear is contradicted later on when Lennie is again described to have animal characteristics, those of a terrier. When he is slowly coming towards George, he approaches, draws back, and approaches again. When the pair arrive at the ranch, a whole batch of characters are introduced, including Candy and his dog. This is not the only dog on the ranch, as Slim also owns one, one which is pregnant. Candy’s dog symbolises old age and the past while Slim’s represents life and things to come. When Candy is bullied into having his dog shot due to it’s annoyance of others on the farm, it is the separation of a connection to the past, a tie that has been severed. Around the same time, Slim’s dog gives birth and puppies are introduced into the world. The killing of Candy’s dog is a determined action to begin to erase the old and to celebrate for the future. It could be said that this is reflected in the American Dream that happened during the Great Depression. The characters in Of Mice And Men are all working towards a goal or aspiration. George and Lennie realize this when they arrive at the ranch and they see that what they have now is a fresh start. A chance to clear their past and work towards the future. The theme of life being reflected in nature is not uncommon for the rest of the book, and John Steinbeck makes several other references to death and how life continues to move on despite it, as though death is an integral part of life, how it is unavoidable and should be honoured, not mourned. This theme plays an important role in the scene where Curley’s Wife meets Lennie in the barn. Before she even enters, George has already killed one of Slim’s puppies by stroking it too hard. This is reinforcing the image of him being bear-like, how he doesn’t know his own strength. When the naà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ve character of Curley’s Wife begins to ‘flirt’ with him, he says that he likes to stroke soft things and so begins stroking her hair. When she begins to struggle, Lennie gets scared and doesn’t realize that he breaks her neck. In the book, it says that her â€Å"body flopped like a fish†. The reader is now left with the image of a bear with a flailing fish in it’s paws, not in a malignant way, but in one that is trying to calm it down. When Lennie rushes off to the brush where George told him to hide if anything goes wrong at the start of the book, he is met by two apparitions, one of his aunt Clara, and one of a giant rabbit. The rabbit is a connection to the dream that Lennie held at the start. Steinbeck is trying to convey to the reader that the dream that these people in the Great Depression held was too unrealistic, how a series of unfortunate events leads to the compete destruction of the dream.

Sunday, November 10, 2019

A Funeral Eulogy for a Roman Wife

The primary source is a funeral eulogy written in the 1st century B.C. by the husband of a woman who had just passed away. The eulogy is intended to praise the character and actions of the wife in front of those that had gathered at her funeral, who would most likely be people belonging to the same upper class of Roman society. The eulogy both reveals the type of person Turia was when she was alive and provides insight into the standard behavior expected of women by men, particularly among men and women that were wealthy. Perhaps there existed different expectations of poor women since they did not perform the same duties. Though, there are certainly some basic standards that all women were held to as revealed by the primary source. While Turia's qualities certainly match those possessed by other women of that time, some of her actions break from tradition entirely. Since the eulogy is written by the husband, someone who would have been one of the closest people to Turia, the document can certainly be believed, to an extent. There may have been some slight exaggerations seeing as how the woman had just passed away and the purpose of the eulogy was to highlight her admirable qualities. Turia, the Roman wife, is described as possessing the virtues of â€Å"loyalty, obedience†¦reasonableness†¦religion without superstition†¦[and] modesty of appearance† (LT 30). The virtue â€Å"religion without superstition† in particular may perhaps be praising her knowledge and understanding since she is able to differentiate between what is real and what is not. These virtues she possessed are a testament to her great character, however they are not unlike the virtues held by other women at the time. The husband states she shares many other similar commendable qualities â€Å"with all married women who care for their good name† (LT 34), thus implying that she is like any other wealthy Roman wife who cares a great deal about maintaining a good reputation and standing in society. The husband twice states that Turia's sister is just as worthy of praise as she is and that they are â€Å"equal† (LT 43), which further emphasizes the point that the traits Turia possessed were not unique, but rather the standard among elite women. The husband does, however, state that she is different in that she has faced difficult and rare circumstances that have allowed her to showcase her praiseworthy qualities. Such circumstances include having to fight against those who claimed her father's will was invalid. Turia had a â€Å"firm resolution† that aided her in ultimately resolving the issue in a way that favored her and thus allowing her to fulfill â€Å"[her] duty to [her] father, [her] devotion to [her] sister, and [her] faithfulness† towards her husband (LT 25-26). I believe this to be her most commendable quality. Clearly, the woman cared a great deal about family. Turia did not leave her parents' murder â€Å"unavenged† and was determined to carry out her father's last wishes by upholding his will (LT 5). She cared for her mother-in-law just as she would her own parents and also secured good marriages for her female relations through dowries in what her husband called â€Å"a spirit of generous family affection† (LT 42). Turia's devotion to family can be further shown by her distress at not being able to give birth. She was even willing for her husband to marry another so that he could have a child. She was entirely selfless and dutiful all throughout her life and it is clearly shown by her actions. The information revealed through the eulogy about Turia both coincides and differs from traditional views. Turia was devoted to protecting her family in any way she could, which concurs with the view of women being caretakers. However, Turia's way of taking care of her family breaks with the norm in that she did not simply stay at home and act after the damage had been done. For example, when a man named Milo and his troops attempted to seize the home of Turia and her husband, she â€Å"beat them back successfully† (LT 11a). The fact that Turia was entirely willing to divorce her husband so that he could have an heir coincides with the traditional idea of marriage being for sole purpose of lineage. However, both Turia and her husband break tradition by choosing to stay together despite the fact that they had no children. Their marriage, as stated by the husband, is also rare in that it lasted for 40 years and only ended because of death, not divorce (LT 27). Turia had a great character and that is undoubtedly shown by the deeds she performed and by the great amount of praise that her husband has towards her. She is both a leading example of an elite Roman woman and an exception to the norms of that time.

Friday, November 8, 2019

How to Write a Cause Effect Essay on “Living Downstream” by Sandra Steingraber

How to Write a Cause Effect Essay on â€Å"Living Downstream† by Sandra Steingraber Cause and effect essays are typically written from one perspective or the other, meaning you would write about a cause or an effect. The reason you are not often asked to write about both is that your space may be limited, and the topic may be broad. However, there are some cases where a teacher might grant you permission to write about both, or it is fitting to your topic to cover both in one essay. Organization If you are writing about both, the obvious organizational choice is to cover the causes of your topic in the first half of your paper, followed by the effects of your topic in the second (for the suitable topic check out our list of ideas on â€Å"Living Downstream†). For example: if you want to focus on how leather factories in Bangladesh have influenced cancer rates of those who drink the runoff water down river, then the topic might be â€Å"increased cancer rates† for a specific cancer of your choosing. The causes would be presented as the chemicals used in the leather refining process which are dumped into the river which are then consumed by the local villages down the river. The effects would be the increased cancer ratios and other sicknesses newly introduced into the village. Of course, using the example above you can also focus on just one or the other: you can focus on high rates of cancer in the villages, or you can focus on the harmful chemicals poured into local water sources. In any case, when you set out to cover your topic, you want to make sure you do the following: Review the instructions before starting anything else. It is here that students often make critical errors. The instructions your teacher provides will likely tell you whether you are to write about causes, effects, or both. If your teacher instructs you to write about causes and you forget to review the instructions carefully and instead write about effects, no matter how well written your essay is your grade will likely suffer. You can avoid this by reviewing the instructions and highlighting keywords contained therein. As you review your instructions, look out too for information regarding the page length, spacing, and format. You don’t want to mistakenly write a 5 page double spaced paper if your teacher asked for single spaced, or to use MLA references when you were required to use APA. Take note of how many sources are required of you as well. Once you have reviewed your requirements, pick your topic. If possible, tie your topic back to something that is of interest to you. If your class reviewed a book on health impacts of manufacturing plants, you can look for a specific area that is of interest to you such as cancer, clothing manufacturing, or a part of the world. Many production companies work around the world and if you, for example, are particular interested in Africa or India, pick that as your focal point. Conduct research. Take notes including relevant bibliographic information for the most important facts, data, or quotes you want to include in support of your work (for more information you can use the facts on â€Å"Living Downstream† by S. Steingraber that will help to make your essay complete). These are the main points of cause and effect essay writing and you should always remember them while diving into the process of performing an academic assignment.

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

20 Controversial Essay Topics Hot Issues on Human Rights as a Form of Imperialism

20 Controversial Essay Topics Hot Issues on Human Rights as a Form of Imperialism If you are looking for a potential topic for your controversial essay on Human Rights as a Form of Imperialism, then look no further. Below are some sample essay topics that might be suitable for your next writing assignment. Remember that these are only meant to guide you and in some cases they may not be the most suitable selections depending on the guidelines of your assignment: Natural Law and Human Rights Violations Which Governments Use Human Rights as a Form of Imperialism How China Restricts Modern Internet Access to Control Tibet French Imperialistic Traces in Former Colonial Governments How North Korea Uses Limited Teaching, Talking About Threats to the Government, Helping Foreigners and Possessing Books Deemed Wrong as Imperialist Control Methods Portuguese Imperialistic Traces in Former Colonial Governments Governments Surveying Nations and Peoples They Deem as Threat: Human Rights as a Form of Imperialism Comprehensive Surveillance Used as Imperialistic Human Rights Control Measures Dutch Imperialistic Traces in Former Colonial Human Rights as a Form of Imperialism The Use of Continual Communications Monitoring in Businesses as Imperialistic Human Rights Control Measures Corporate Contributions to Western Politicians as Imperialistic Human Rights Control Measures British Imperialistic Traces in Former Colonial States: Human Rights as a Form of Imperialism Companies Using Advertisements to Control News as Imperialistic Human Rights Control Measures Asian Communities and Regimes Using Imperialistic Human Rights as Control Measures Japanese Imperialistic Traces in Former Colonial Governments Prominent Displays of Imperialistic Human Rights Control Measures in Modern Countries Complete International Media Control as Imperialistic Human Rights Control Measure Limited Information Availability as Imperialistic Human Rights Control Measure Belgian Imperialistic Traces in Former Colonial Governments Prevalence of Communication Monitoring as an Imperialistic Human Rights Control Measure These topics are specially designed for you to use together with   our 10 facts on human rights as a form of imperialism with a complete guide on this rare kind of academic work. Below is a sample essay on one of those topics to help give you a better idea of what your controversial essay should really be focused on: Sample Controversial Essay on Natural Law and Human Rights Violations Natural law is a theory of ethics, a theory of politics, religious morality, and civil law. The theory of natural law in terms of ethics can be applied to law, religion, and politics. In essence, natural law is determined by the universe, or human nature. It is most often referred to as the rules which guide moral behavior. Positive law is considered man made while natural law is that which is determined by nature. As such, natural law is a major component of critiquing positive law. Positive cannot be created or known without the foundation of natural law. As such, natural law can be used to determine legal statutes under natural rights or natural justice. Natural law states that certain rights are universally recognized by human nature. English common law, for example, has been greatly affected by natural law thanks to philosophers of the time including Thomas Hobbes and John Locke. Natural law plays a large role within natural rights and is a major component of the Declaration of Independence as well as the United States Constitution. Aristotle emphasizes the difference between nature and law. Law can vary in its command from place to place while nature remains the same in all places. As such, the law of nature was posed as a form of natural justice. Aristotle was said to be the father of natural law (Shellens, 1959, p. 77). Aristotle posits that natural justice is a subsidiary of political justice which should be established within a political community. Socrates argued that law is merely a matter of contract which binds those states men to their duty and to justice. Machiavelli argued that virtu’, even whilst occupying the role of a statesman, is circumstantial; that the best or just action might be considered unjust but is still serving the best interests. Machiavelli was a Western philosopher who was influenced by Greek philosophers such as Plato. Nonetheless, Machiavelli often argues against the philosophy of Plato. Plato believed in rulers who would rule based in moral virtue, which is defined by natural law or rather, guided by natural law. Machiavelli, conversely, believes in what he deemed â€Å"virtu† and suggested that what should be done is whatever was in the best interest of this, natural law aside. Plato speaks of the orderly universe in which we live. In The Republic, Plato suggested that ethics and politics overlapped in terms of their essential features and were, more or less, the same. He did not distinguish between public life and private life, as we do today. No private life was ever kept from the public during his time. During the time of Machiavelli, the reason for the state was to serve the people, not for the people to serve the state. Machiavelli believed that a ruler’s only purpose was making war and protecting citizens from other states’ attacks. This would mean only protecting the natural rights of the citizens of the country, even if it came at the cost of violating the natural rights of other citizens from another country. As such, a ruler was justified in acting in whatever fashion was necessary to maintain the country, even if said act was unjust. Plato argued that a ruler could never be unjust and could never violate natural law. Plato is against the ruler who rules based only on might, as seen in The Republic, and supportive of the idea of natural law or natural human rights. Socrates remained bound by an interest in ethics and natural law. He stated that knowledge gained by an individual is what makes for a good life. Knowledge is strongly identified as virtue. Thereby, if a person can obtain knowledge he or she can also obtain virtue and as such, one can teach virtue, particularly one who is in a position of authority as a leader. Knowledge of natural law would lead to an understanding that certain rights and justices are as natural as human nature and the universe and a continued education in such theory would show leaders and individuals involved in government that these were to remain as such. This creates a foundation for any political and economic system. Since the notion of private and public life being separate entities was not a popular one, Socrates stated that a person must seek knowledge prior t o seeking private interests because knowledge served as the only path to making decisions concurrent with natural law. References: Al-Jubouri, Firas A. J.  Milestones On The Road To Dystopia. Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2014. Print. Bergman, Edward F, and William H Renwick.  Introduction To Geography. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1999. Print. Cortina Orts, Adela.  Covenant And Contract. LLeuven, Belgium: Peeters, 2003. Print. Larkin, Emma.  Finding George Orwell In Burma. New York: Penguin Press, 2005. Print. Larkin, Emma.  Secret Histories. London: John Murray, 2004. Print. Saccarelli, Emanuele, and Latha Varadarajan.  Imperialism Past And Present. Print. Spring, Joel H.  The American School : A Global Context. Print. Zhu, Qian et al.  The Politics Of Everyday Life: Non-Party Leftists In Republican China, 1919-1937. 2011. Print.

Sunday, November 3, 2019

Business Strategy of Associated British Foods Assignment

Business Strategy of Associated British Foods - Assignment Example In relation to the study the company which has been selected is Associated British Foods, an international public limited company that has its headquarters in London. The company was established in 1935 and is the leading British supermarket chain as far as production of sugar and baker’s yeast is concerned. The company has five strategic business units: Sugar, Agriculture, Retail, Grocery and Ingredients. The grocery division stocks both branded and own label products. Brands that fall under its grocery division include Mazola, Ovaltine, Ryvita, Jordans and Twinings, Silver Spoon, Tip Top and Kingsmill. The company’s retail division (called Primark in UK and Penneys in Ireland) has a global presence with over 215 stores covering a total area of 6.9 million square feet. The retail division’s outlets are located in Belgium, Germany, Ireland, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain and the UK. In 1963, the company acquired the British supermarket giant, Fine Fare which it sold later in 1986 in order to acquire British sugar. As of 2009, British Sugar fulfills the sugar requirements of more than half of UK. Finally, in 2007 ABF acquired an Indian food business. The company provides employment to more than 97,000 people and operates in more than 44 countries. UK contributes to around half of the company’s sales and profits. ABF has been rigorously diversifying into other markets than Sugar since early 2000s which is a crucial aspect of its strategy. ABF acquired ‘Twinings’ in 1964 to broaden the range of national and international marketing resources available. (Whittington, R. and Mayer, M., 2002). To date Twinings has been an asset in the company’s portfolio as it enjoys strong brand loyalty and has had a pull effect which has increased sales of other brands within ABF’s portfolio (Whittington, R. and Mayer, M., 2002).ABF further diversified into the food business with the intention of providing one-stop convenience shopping to customers; the company had realized that customer buying habits and trends were changing (Whittington, R. and Mayer, M., 2002). One of the most important reasons however was the instability of earnings from sugar sector due to its seasonal nature, coupled with the anticipated EU reform (Bertin, O., 2002). Another crucial aspect of ABF’s strategy has been its diversification and growth strategy. The company has, over the years, expanded to sectors beyond sugar which is a conscious and well-thought out strategy based on strong reasoning. Firstly, the highly debated EU sugar reform intended to cut surplus in sugar beet production by slashing prices by an exorbitant 43% which would adversely affect the company’s earnings (Bertin, O., 2002). Secondly, sales from the sugar business were subject to seasonal fluctuations which had to be recovered from non-seasonal businesses so the diversification to other lines such as retail, ingredient and grocery was well just ified for ABF. (Bertin, O., 2002).Thirdly, world markets had become very unstable especially in the years following 2000 because of which its sugar line was capable of being harshly affected (Cherney and Elena, 2001). Furthermore, its sugar industry was highly dependent on the local UK economy for raw materials and output which made it undesirable for the company due to the country’s history of slow recovery from economic recessions so its diversification was justified. (Cherney and Elena, 2001). Therefore, it is evident from the reasons mentioned above that the company was formally employed in the sugar industry; however, it spread its operations to other unrelated sectors such as grocery, retail and ingredients (Austen and Ian, 2007). A key aspect of ABF’s diversification strategy has been its geographic diversification. In 2006, it got hold of Illovo; a South Africa based company which it has used as a means of penetrating deeper into the South African sugar market and could

Friday, November 1, 2019

Case study - Franchising Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

- Franchising - Case Study Example The description will seek to apprehend four business ventures that John indulged in, and how they were substantial in building his career. The discussion will provide the merits and demerits of each particular venture; as well as, providing substantive recommendation that John could have opted at each business venture. Background One: Radiator Repair Based on the information presented in this extract, it is good to acknowledge that the radiator business has significant impact on John life. Firstly, John through the business got accustomed to running a service business. On this account, it is good to understand that the radiator business has significant challenges. The knowledge that the business has multi-customers with diverse needs hardens John, equipping him with the ability to handle different customer needs differently. Again, the knowledge that John conducted a family business has significant impact on how he could handle future business. Primarily, family businesses are challe nged by a plethora of factors, the concept of trust and authenticity often dominates different segments of the business. John was hardened to understand the essentiality having a manly figure in the business. This will later be reflected in his future business indulgence alongside different companies. However, there are categorical limitations of this business venture. Firstly, the consideration that radiator repair is a technical job which in any case have limited compensation is not a great idea for an employee. Again, his step-father never encouraged John to take over the franchise and in this case, John was relegated to the concept of a mere employee. In fact, the decision to leave the franchise is whole bestowed on the knowledge that his salary at the radiator business was not sufficient enough to manage his life. John had a family along the way and the radiator venture was not a substantive investment opportunity. In my opinion, John Leaving the radiator repair business owned by his father was a resounding move since it would enable him to look into a broader concept in learning new challenges of building a business from scratch. Background Two: Automotive paint touch-up A prominent character in John is his will to learn new things and his optimism. The idea to enter the automotive paint touch-up business was a bold step considered between John and Joan. The family reallocation to Colorado to build up the franchise was a realistic concept. According to the extract John and Joan did build the business for several years. The advantages of this business are the reallocation and consequently, building the business from scratch in an area which John and Joan lacked market. This was a logical step since it hardened John business concept making John understand the ideal reality of operating a business in a foreign environment. However, this strategy attracts criticism in some sense. Firstly, the knowledge that John and Joan left a prevailing market, in this cas e, John has start-up customers in the automotive industry is a dominion factor of consideration. John and Joan could have done successfully better if they continued with this alternative in Texas. Again, the consideration that this business was a blue-collar type of technical investment was not advisable venture considering John had deep dreams in

Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Architecture Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Architecture - Essay Example Defining the various methodologies and looking at the research required then provides a different level of insight into creating the right approach in understanding and evaluating the architectural topics that are required. Qualitative Methods of Research The basis of qualitative methods of research is to associate with people or objects at a given level to collect data. Instead of using hard data, such as statistics and other formats of numbers, there is a relationship to the social aspect of data and how this alters in given situations. Social sciences, such as psychology and the arts, are able to use qualitative methods for specific interpretations and observations that are required. Surveys, interviews, observation and informal methods of collecting data are often combined with creating a relationship to various variables required. This is furthered with types of research that are used with qualitative studies. For instance, grounded theory takes the ideology of qualitative metho ds and proposes ways to move through the research process. This is inclusive of observing and gathering data as well as finding specific ways to analyze and interpret the method that has been used. This helps to explain the statements and actions with specific individuals while building meanings out of the observation. For this to work, there is the need to have grounding with theoretical ideologies, combined with the capacity of coding information into data that creates meaning (Charmaz, 2006: 3). For architectural alternatives, there is the ability to observe and analyze a variety of movements, actions and theories with the theory. This is combined with analyzing the outcome and observations associated with this. The strength in this is based on creating meaning for a social and cultural observation of society. However, there is also a specific interpretation which is made according to the researcher and the defining points of the observations made, as opposed to being based only on facts. A basis that is a part of research philosophies in architecture comes with the main topic area and how this influences the availability of studies. Architecture is considered a component of both the social sciences and an art form, both which create a broad range for study that can be considered. To further the research that is done according to subject matter is also the need to have a specific type of research to identify the architecture. Theory based data analysis becomes one of the main approaches to those studying the architectural forms. The theory data is provided with past theories of architecture, social movements, cultural affiliations and philosophies which are attributed to the buildings that are studied. The overview and observation that occurs with the form of theory based data analysis then offers a broad viewpoint of the architectural forms and how this links to the buildings and subjects that are a part of the research. In relation to this are formats suc h as the focal relationship, which takes at least two independent theories and compares them to identify the relationship with architecture to given theories. This provides a cause and effect theory, which shows the cause for building the architecture and the effect which this has had within the social sciences (Aneshensel, 2002: 11). The theoretical observation that takes place has strength in looking at the past theories and relating these to dependent

Monday, October 28, 2019

Organizational Culture, Reengineering Services Process, and HR Organization Description Essay Example for Free

Organizational Culture, Reengineering Services Process, and HR Organization Description Essay Magneti Marelli Holding S. p. A. , a division of Fiat, is headquartered in Corbetta, Italy, and is an international manufacturer that designs, produces, and supplies high-tech automotive components. The primary product range is engine control systems for gasoline and diesel engines. Magneti Marelli is currently present in five continents and 18 countries (Fiat, 2010). To create a more consistent environment in the global process, World Class Manufacturing (WCM) has been implemented in all Fiat manufacturing companies. World Class Manufacturing is an international methodology for the organization of the manufacturing cycle to manage plants in accordance with the best standards. The application of WCM principles and methods resulted in logistics and quality and significant cost reductions. Fiat’s manufacturing structure has become increasingly efficient and flexible and has enabled the company to gain a competitive edge. Strategy Description For several years, the Fiat Group has been working to develop into a global manufacturing entity with the highest standards. The implementation of World Class Manufacturing addresses all aspects of the organization including environmental, health and safety, quality, maintenance, cost and logistic issues from the standpoint of continuous improvement. The entire process revolves around the methodical identification and decrease or elimination of waste through application of standardized techniques and tools and involves everyone in the company. WCM recognizes that employee involvement and empowerment are critical to attaining continuous improvement in all fundamentals of the manufacturing system. Organizational development occurs predominantly through employee involvement. World Class companies invest relatively more in their worker relationships and offer appreciably more training. For program achievement, Human Resources needs to be a business strategic partner and a key member of the management team overseeing and providing operational leadership (Entrepreneur, 1996). Strategy Application The key to developing and maintaining a workforce capable of supporting World Class Manufacturing is to cultivate an atmosphere of employee engagement and team building. Developing a skilled and flexible workforce creates value for external customers. To sustain a talented labor force, Human Resources initiatives involve recruitment and hiring; performance management; employee development and training; leadership development and training; team building; and safety and health programs (Scondanibbio, 2010). By recruiting and retaining top talent by identifying skill gaps and focus training as characterized by WCM, turnover and absenteeism rates are lowered and productivity and efficiency from workers increases. Training employees provides the chance to take ownership of their daily activities. Working in teams and cross-functional training increases efficiency and eliminates clutter and confusion on the plant floor. One section of World Class Manufacturing is People Development (Scondanibbio, 2010). HR provides team facilitation, leadership, and direction guidance in meeting instructional needs. The second activity in leading and managing change involves creating a vision that depicts the core values and purpose that guide the organization. It provides a worthwhile direction for designing, implementing, and assessing needed organizational changes. HR Professionals must sustain the change momentum through to completion by providing resources for change, developing new competencies and skills, and reinforcing new behaviors. Strategy Implications Organizational change involves moving from the known to the unknown which can impact worker competencies and coping abilities. Human Resources must prepare the workforce by meeting instructional needs. The second activity in leading and managing change involves creating readiness for change and overcoming resistance to change. This requires HR to be both the constant and supporter in the middle of the turmoil of change. The organization looks to HR to provide needed structures, processes and approaches to support change management and to ensure the efforts deliver results (Belilos, 1997). World Class Manufacturing has defined key principles that define the organization and inspires doing things better and improving quality, delivery, cost, and customer satisfaction. It is important to understand exactly what waste is and where it exists. For each identified waste, a strategy is prepared so performance and quality are improved. The identical process is also applied to human errors and gap analysis. Specific training models are designed applicable to the need. As the phrase indicates, World Class Manufacturing enhances an organization to be a global leader in performance and quality. Human Resources should have a clear understanding of the value of metrics and continuous measurement as the key to achieving sustainable efficiency and effectiveness. Using these outcomes, HR will have a thorough focus on talent and performance management to establish an integrated workforce management system that is closely aligned to the business needs and brand.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Legal issues :: essays research papers

ESSAY. The Constitutional system in Australia determines how the law is made. Some issues addressed by this are; The Federal government, division of powers, the separation of powers, amending the constitution, the high court and the constitution and transfer of powers. The federal System of government has one central government deal with matters involving the whole nation. This system was adopted in Australia on 1 January 1901.In a federal system of Government there must be a division of powers. Powers are divided between the states and federal government. The powers divided are legislative, executive and judicial powers. These are divided by the Australian constitution. The constitution provides for four types of legislative powers; Specific powers: areas of law making specifically mentioned in the constitution as belonging to the Federal government, Residual powers: powers that the states retained after federation, these are not mentioned in the constitution but became the states powers. Concurrent powers: areas over which the states and commonwealth have legislative power. Exclusive powers: areas over which the federal government has exclusive power.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The Separation of powers means that power is distributed between three arms of government. The three arms are; legislature, executive and judiciary. The judiciary is separated from the legislature and the executive, because of this it is independent and can examine their actions without bias. The legislature is separated from the judiciary and executive powers, because of this it is independent, providing for some rights which cannot be taken away by legislation and this allows provides for regular elections. The executive powers, there is no true separation between these two arm, because the British require that members form the executive arm be chosen from the legislature. However the power of the executive is subject to checks and balances in other ways.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Amending the constitution. Section 128 of the constitution provides the procedure by which the constitution may be changed. The constitution can only be changed if a bill stating the question is passed by both houses of parliament and the change is approved by referendum by the majority of people in a majority of states. It is difficult to amend the constitution because it cannot be amended like any other law; if it were then the federal government could make laws on any area it chose by amending the constitution. For example the 6 November 1999 referendum asked the Australian public ‘do you support an act to alter the constitution to establish the commonwealth of Australia as a republic, with the queen and governor general being replaced by a president appointed by two thirds majority of the members of the commonwealth parliament’.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Commemorative Speech Essay

In Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban we were introduced to Sirius Black, a character who would change the Harry Potter world, as all readers would know it. I would like to commemorate his memory; not only because he did pass in Harry Potter and the Order of the Pheonix, but also because he introduced us to the greater plot and foreshadowing that JK Rowling had in store for us, I am qualified to speak on this topic because I have read the Harry Potter series 14 times and listened to the audio books 8 times. Sirius is a fighter. Sirius spent 13 years in Azkaban, being held for a crime he didn’t commit, and never lost hope. Even though the whole wizarding world was against him and thought that he killed muggles, and Peter Petigrew, he fought to get out and protect his god son. Sirius is also a person who brought Harry information about his parents. Sirius was Lily and James’ best friend since the first day at Hogwarts, and grew up with them. Sirius exposed the truth that Wormtail betrayed his parents, and made the bold statement that â€Å"he would rather have died than betray his friends†. Sirius Black also turned into that person that Harry needed. Sirius was a father/older brother role model that Harry lacked and so desperately needed. Sirius was always there for Harry when he needed him. In the Goblet of Fire he gave him life saving advice when Harry had to face the 3 tasks. In the Order of the Pheonix Sirius calmed Harry about the uncertainties he had about his father, and came to his resuce at the Ministry of Magic. Everything about Sirius Black was crucial during the Harry Potter books. Sirius was one of the most influential and important character in the Harry Potter books, and that is why I chose to commemorate him.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Prisoner Abuse Essay

Introduction Prisoner Abuse is one of the biggest problems faced by the society. It is one serious problem in many countries worldwide. There are many kinds of abuse experienced by incarcerated men and women, with sexual abuse being the most serious case since the perpetrators is not only fellow inmates but jail guards and prison staff also. Overpopulation is also one form of abuse since the needs of the prisoners are not properly given due to the scarcity of resources brought about by huge population. Drugs and drug abuse are is still prevalent in the prison world. Drugs have been noted to have a detrimental effect to prisoners the impact which may last for a lifetime. These kinds of abuse should be given due punishments because the convicts, no matter how serious their crimes are, still deserve to receive treatment that is rightfully accorded to a human being. More and more inmates are stepping inside jails every year. Majority of them experience extreme abuse that even leads to death of some unfortunate inmates. It is saddening that these experiences of prisoners are hindered by many factors. They cannot demand for justice because their behaviors and emotions are controlled by authorities over them. There are also times when their complaints are not acknowledged since they are already imprisoned due to heavy crimes. This problem however needs to be solved since the effect of the abuse is not only physical; it also affects the sociological and psychological aspect of human beings. However, prisoner abuse is an unfortunate phenomenon that can still be prevented and controlled. Everyone is entitled to fight for his or her human rights. This also includes even the prisoners who are convicted with a crime, and they should not be denied of these rights. Defining Prisoner Abuse Prisoner abuse happens to incarcerated men and women through mistreatments. Incarcerated individuals suffer twice the punishment given to them because of abusive jail guards, jail employees, and co-prisoners. One of the ways in which inmates suffer abuse is through torture. As cited in the Human Rights website, torture in prison is defined as: any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted on a person for such purposes as obtaining from him or a third person information or a confession, punishing him for an act he or a third person has committed or is suspected of having committed, or intimidating or coercing him or a third person, or for any reason based on discrimination of any kind, when such pain or suffering is inflicted by or at the instigation of or with the consent or acquiescence of a public official or other person acting in an official capacity (Fathi, 2008). Violence among prisoners by fellow prisoners or jail guards and employees is also rampant. It is a great problem that should be addressed immediately. Prisoners of all cultures, races, ages, and social status experience abuse at some points of their lives in prison. The socioeconomic status and cultural background have a significant influence in the impact of prison violence. Poor prisoners are more likely to experience abuse because they cannot afford to hire attorneys to defend the kind of life they have in prison. Those who are not natives of one country are inclined to have hesitation when calling out for help because they are not speaking in that country’s language (Richie, 2000). Forms of Prison Abuse Prisoner abuse comes in various forms, all of which cause harmful effects to male and female inmates. It comes in the form of physical, psychological, sexual and verbal. Physical Abuse Physically, the prisoners are abused through hitting and continuous beating. Physical abuse may also manifest as forced work assigned to the victims which is not a part of their punishment when they are convicted. This also includes depriving them of their basic needs such as food and clothing by cruel jail employees. The growing population of corrections may also be considered as form of physical abuse. Due to the large population that results in scarcity of resources, the prisoners do not receive an adequate amount of their basic needs (Idaho Observer, 2006). One of the most controversial and disturbing issues regarding prisoner abuse is the ultimately degrading treatment of Iraqi prisoners in Abu Ghraib in Iraq by American soldiers. A report made by Higham and Stephens (2004) at the Washington Post narrates how the Iraqi detainees were physically violated: Previously secret sworn statements by detainees at the Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   describe in raw detail abuse that goes well beyond what has been made public, adding   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   allegations of prisoners being ridden like animals, sexually fondled by female soldiers   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   and forced to retrieve their food from toilets (Higham & Stephens, 2004). Many of the prisoners who experience physical abuse, particularly those in the Abu Ghraib, are treated like animals. Prisoners are also out of touch with the real world. Their socialization is hindered by many factors. They do not have the capacity to fight back since they are already convicted for the crimes that they made. Other cases of physical abuse go as far as the prisoner’s death. Verbal Abuse There are also instances of verbal abuse to prisoners. They are called imbecile, idiot, moron, and other nasty words by jail guards in order to humiliate them (Higham & Stephens, 2004). Higham and Stephens (2004) add that â€Å"some of the detainees described are being abused as punishment or discipline after they were caught fighting or with a prohibited item† (Higham & Stephens, 2004). According to the Idaho Observer (2006), the guards tend to think that the inmates always do something wrong. One of the guards admitted that if they catch the prisoners’ lips moving, they assume that the latter are not telling the truth (Idaho Observer, 2006). Words that are usually thrown by jail guards to inmates are often harsh and hard to take. These words are more discriminating and humiliating. There are also instances when prisoners who commit mistakes in front of their fellow prisoners are being shouted at by jail guards and employees. These are really improper ways of treating prisoners because it damages their self-esteem and has bad effect on their mentality (Higham & Stephens, 2004). Psychological Abuse   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Discipline is far different from torture. However, some jail authorities resort to using psychological abuse and mask it as a method of discipline for prisoners. This happens to prisoners by means of taunting, white noise, and not allowing them to sleep. Such cases of psychological abuse may lead to mental disorders. There are also threats given out to prisoners which cause paranoia and mental and emotional torture. Drug usage in prison may also lead to psychological disorders (Idaho Observer, 2006). One good example of psychological abuse in prison is cited in the May 2006 Idaho Observer report. The said report states that the abuse in the prison may manifest subtly. Instead of inflicting physical harm on prisoners, they are being abused by toying with them psychologically and emotionally. For instance, the jail employees leave the lights on for 17-and-a-half hours straight (4:30 in the morning to 10 in the evening). The guards also disturb the prisoner’s sleep by pointing the flashlights on the latter’s faces every 60 minutes or so, slamming the doors, and speaking loudly (Idaho Observer, 2006). Obviously, lack of sleep will cause one’s mind not to function properly. This kind of maltreatment in prisons is still rampant until today. Sexual Abuse The most popular abuse among prisoners is sexual abuse. There are many cases of forced sexual intercourse inside corrections. This abuse leads to diseases like AIDS and HIV. Sexual abuse is done by forcing prisoners to have sexual encounter with jail guards, jail employees and even their co-inmates. Sexual abuse is not only limited to prison guards and employees. It also occurs inside jail bars, the co-inmate being the perpetrator. Male to male sexual encounter occurs because they don’t have any choice but to satisfy their sexual needs by abusing their fellow male inmates. On the case of female prisoners who were sexually abused, lack of power hinders them to report the incident. There are times when sexual abuse to female prisoners occurs with the consent of the victim. However, this is still a violation of the law (Idaho Observer, 2006). Types of Prison Abuse Cases of maltreatment and mistreatment inside corrections take place when jail guards, any prison employee, or co-prisoner does something inappropriate to other prisoners. It comes in many abusive forms depending on the type. Although something bad is done by the inmate it is still improper to treat them like animals.   It is still a case of abuse of power by jail personnel and a violation of human rights. Drugs in Prison Using illegal drugs, drug trafficking and other drug related cases cause individuals to be imprisoned. To end the promulgation of drugs, the drug pushers are detained in jails. However, the issue on drugs does not end here. Some correctional tolerate the use of drugs among prisoners. Others are forced to use it while those who are already users before entering the bars continue to use it. Addiction among inmates of the prohibited drugs is also attributed to stress that they experience in such environment (Uchtenhagen, 2007). Because of drugs being trafficked in jails, inmates who used to use drugs mildly prior to being imprisoned may become highly addicted to drugs.   On the other hand, those who do not have any history of drug use may turn out to be drug users as their method of coping with stress and depression (Managing Drugs in Prison, 2007). Source of prohibited drugs are jail employees, jail guards, and those inmates who still have contacts on drug suppliers outside. Other causes of drug abuse inside prison are related to other types of abuse. When one prisoner is abused sexually, he/she is bribed by things like drugs to avoid complaining about the incident. Those prisoners who are users of drugs being incarcerated are blackmailed by using the victim’s personal cravings to drugs to get their consent and agree to be molested. Those prisoners who are weak are being bullied and forced to use drugs by those who are superior inside their cells (Managing Drugs in Prison, 2007). The effects of drug abuse to prisoners are really pervasive. They cannot act and think normally because of substance abuse. Their relationship with each other is also affected as well as their relatives outside the prison environment (Managing Drugs in Prison, 2007). Overpopulation in Prison Every year, more and more people are being incarcerated because of many reasons. Some are guilty of their crimes while others are victims of injustice. The increase in the number of prisoners equates to greater demands for resources and space inside the prison vicinity. However, the inmates are being abused by corrupt prison personnel who ask help from the government to aid the scarcity of prison resources like food, beds and others. In some cases, normal and mentally ill prisoners are combined in one place which makes the situation worse. Prisons which are overcrowded are, more often than not, unsafe as they warn of a riot erupting any time (Idaho Observer, 2006). One of the reasons for prison overcrowding is the incarceration of pregnant women. Women who are giving birth in prisons also increase at the same time. The problem here is not only the condition of the female prisoner but the condition of the infant being born in that kind of environment. The problem arises before and during the delivery since medical support is also inaccessible inside prisons. Sexual Abuse in Prison In some cases of sexual abuse in prison, bribery is included to avoid reporting the bad incident made to prisoners. Those who were abused are given cigarettes, drugs, clothing, access to telephone and other prison privileges in replace of sexual encounters. Offering goods to prisoners makes the sexual abuse possible because prisoners crave things that they only experience outside. Food and drugs are commonly used to perpetrate the abuse. Threats is also involved when forced sexually abuse is done. However, sexual abuse perpetrated by female inmates does not fall in the context of rape. This is because there is no force used to perform the abuse. â€Å"Girls are often framed by probation officers as being overemotional and needy† (Gaarder et al., 2005, p. 578). Male rape is a common thing inside prisons, but as for female prisoners, the enemy is not their fellow prisoners but much worse. They are the male prison guards and correctional staff. Female prisoners who are sexually coerced by jail guards give in because of fear. Sexual abuse is also used in most prisons to cover up more serious problems like drug addiction and carrying of deadly weapons behind bars. There are also cases when sexual abuse serves as the key to escape from jail.   Correctional employees assist the escape of female prisoners with whom they have sexual involvement (Human Rights Watch 1996). The problem of sexual abuse among women prisoners is much worse precisely because of their sheer number. Research shows that the United States has earned the distinction of incarcerating the most number of prisoners.   Most of these prisoners are women and their number is increasing dramatically at a fast rate. According to studies, since 1980, the number of women entering U.S. prisons has been raised to almost 400%, which is roughly double the incarceration rate increase of males. According to current statistics, nearly â€Å"half of all female prisoners have experienced some form of sexual abuse prior to incarceration† (Human Rights Watch 1996).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The most common sexual abuse in prison always incorporates violence in it. In a report made by the Department of Justice in 2004, there are 8,210 allegations of sexual violence according to correctional authorities, â€Å"the equivalent of 3.2 allegations per 1,000 inmates and youths incarcerated in 2004† (Department of Justice 2005). When violence is mixed with sexual abuse, it is really damaging on the part of the victim. There are physical disabilities that may occur, including broken bones and joints, skin injuries, and many more. The worst cases of prison rape lead to the death of prisoners.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Rape cases also happen to male prisoners. There are male prison guards and correctional staffs that take advantage of the authoritative power and force male prisoners to have sex intercourse with them. Then they disguise their revolting act, by pretending as protectors of the prisoners. It often involves group of prisoners in order to scare the target prisoner to be raped. It is a setup made by having group of prisoners bully the victim and threatening him with body harm. At the point that they will hurt the victim, the so-called â€Å"protector† will try to defend the victim and scare the groups away. In order to repay the savior (a jail guard, a jail staff or a co-inmate), the inmate will be asked to do favors and be repaid sexually. Causes of Prison Abuse   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Abuse of power is the main reason why there is such thing as prison abuse. Those who are in authority take advantage of their power and demands many things from others. Such dominance causes abuse and torture to poor convicted criminals trapped behind bars. The lack of courage to speak for the truth and shout for justice is also a reason why the abuse is done over and over to prisoners. Cases of sexual abuse are included in this example and cited in the Human Rights Watch website. These are the words of a male prisoner who was raped inside the institution. As he recalls: â€Å"I’ve been sentenced for a D.U.I. offense. My 3rd one. When I first came to prison, I had no idea what to expect. I’m a tall white male, who unfortunately has a small amount of feminine characteristics. And very shy. These characteristics have got me raped so many times I have no more feelings physically. I have been raped by up to 5 black men and two white men at a time. I’ve had knifes at my head and throat†¦There is no supervision after lockdown† (Human Rights Watch 2006),   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   When a prisoner looks appealing among the rest, there is a great chance of being molested by prison guards. Some prisoners use their charms to have access to other things like phone calls and extra food during meal times (Human Rights Watch 2006). Effects of Prisoner Abuse   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The effects of prisoner abuse can last a lifetime. The trauma and depression can be inculcated in the minds of prisoners who were physically, psychologically, verbally and sexually abused and leave them scarred permanently.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Those who were brutally abused through physical means have traces of scars and bone injuries that cannot be treated anymore. There are also cases of physical abuse when one inmate is forced to have a tattoo by their fellow inmates. The denial stage comes in when they are visited by their relatives and ask what happened to them. They will try to hide the fact that they are abused by people who should have looked after them and just discipline them instead of giving them torture. Most prisoners are afraid of telling the truth because harder punishments will be given to them by their perpetrators (Men in Prison, 2008).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Mental illnesses are also developed as years go by inside prisons. This is because the wide spread of drug abuse is rampant. It is obviously known that prohibited drugs cause malfunction in the brain. Other diseases like STDs (Sexually Transmitted Disease) and AIDS are attributed to sexual abuse inside prisons. This is the reality in the prison system which has been institutionalized in the society—a kind of system that contributes to the perpetuation of violence inside prisons (Men in Prison, 2008).   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Prisoner abuse also has sociological effects on the prisoner. The traumatic experience causes fear and trauma that will make him separate himself from everyone. The issue of women inmates giving birth to their child is also included because of prisoner abuse. The child is automatically separated from the mother once born inside the prison. In effect, the child may grow up without the necessary care and attention which is expected to be given by the biological mother. There are even cases of pregnant prisoners who are raped by prison guards. Such sexual abuse is really unbearable for the victim and their families. It does not only impact the prisoners but the institution as a whole. The reason why they are incarcerated is for them to be disciplined and not to be tortured and abused (Acoca & Austin, 1996). Sexual abuse makes the institution not credible in disciplining the prisoners. Instead, they themselves should be incarcerated as well.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   When prisoners experience abuse, the effects can last a life time. The nightmare will forever haunt them and may lead to mental incapacitation or death at the worst. Those who experience sexual abuse and accumulate diseases find themselves committing suicide than suffer the illness daily. On cases of female prisoners who are raped, there is greater possibility of being pregnant. Being mentally ill is also an additional risk of being sexually abused (Acoca & Austin, 1996). Rights of Prisoners   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Although a person is found guilty of a crime, there is still no reason for him/her to be abused inside prisons. There are several studies showing various changes regarding situations of prisoners. Most of the said report involve abuse without due punishment given to the perpetrators. Everyone has the right to seek for justice even if you are already set behind the bars. Inmates do not deserve any kind of abuse inside the correctional. They are placed there to be rehabilitated and disciplined, not to be punished twice for their misdeed.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   According to the report made by the Justice Department’s Bureau of Justice, prison population in the United States has grown to 2 million inmates (Longley, 2007). The said research also shows that the escalating number of inmates heightens the problem of sexual abuse while incarcerated. Such demands about this problem should no longer be ignored; preventive measures need be done eradicate this problem.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The rights of prisoners as cited in the Human Rights Website (2008) are based from the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) in 1992. These rights address the following: (1) All persons deprived of their liberty shall be treated with humanity and with respect for the inherent dignity of the human person. (2)The penitentiary system shall comprise treatment of prisoners the essential aim of which shall be their reformation and social rehabilitation (Fathi, 2008). ICCPR also guarantees prisoner who were abused that there are remedies at hand to counter such violation of their human rights. The said covenant includes the following: (a) To ensure that any person whose rights or freedoms as herein recognized are violated shall have an effective remedy, notwithstanding that the violation has been committed by persons acting in an official capacity; (b) To ensure that any person claiming such a remedy shall have his right thereto determined by competent judicial, administrative or legislative authorities, or by any other competent authority provided for by the legal system of the State, and to develop the possibilities of judicial remedy; (c) To ensure that the competent authorities shall enforce such remedies when granted (ICCPR, Art. 2, sec. 3, as cited in Fathi, 2008). Solutions to Prison Abuse   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Aside from the rights and privileges mentioned above, there are a variety of solutions to end this abuse among prisoners. There are organizations and government groups that help victims of prison abuse. There are also preventive measures that can be followed so as to stop the occurrence of any kind of abuse. People against prisoner abuse are comprised of individuals who seek for justice for those abused prisoners. One of the organizations that have been fighting for inmate rights is the People Against Prison Abuse, organization established in 1994 to help inmates and their family. The said organization aims to assist the families and friends who are currently imprisoned (People Against Prison Abuse, 2008). It attempts to address the following concerns: The tax being paid by taxpayers over the past several years are said to be spent more on prison inmates than public education but it is not visibly seen. The medical care of inmates Overcrowding is always ignored which should not become a norm. Mentally ill prisoners are not properly taken care of and are often abused by guards because they are not trained on how to deal with such conditions. The physically challenged inmates do not have the medical care, equipment, and/or facilities to enable them to be a functional human inside the prison system (6)The vast number of industrial prison complex staff (wardens, guards, and medical staff) commit worse crimes than majority of inmates so they should be punished. (People Against Prison Abuse, 2008). The aforementioned concerns are few of the many appeals of people who want justice for prison abuse. It is also important to support organizations like this to make all people aware and to convince the government to â€Å"investigate conditions within our prisons and to pass legislation to protect prisoners from abuse† (Stop Prison Abuse, 2008). Conclusion It is saddening to note that the judicial system which is supposed to protect the oppressed likewise offers no solution to this problem as it would consider this problem as an internal matter and would rather allow prison officials to handle this matter amongst themselves. The indifferent attitude of the correctional officials to one inmate raping another is likewise depressing. It renders much harmful effects on the condition of the prisoner and the credibility of justice. Prisoner abuse is indeed a pervasive in penal institutions. This problem however is preventable and controllable if preventive measures will be enacted and the government will responsibly address the issue. The response need not be limited to their strict punishment as avoidance measures may be instituted as a matter of prison policy. â€Å"The governments often have limited resources on giving the right prosecution process for victims and offenders† (Hoffman, 1993, p. 1552). Prisoner abuse should be given immediate action so that it will never happen again. Abuse of authority should not be tolerated. This is a serious problem needed to be solved immediately.   Not only because the victim is already convicted, but because the victim is a human. Every human being has indelible rights. Conviction for a crime no matter how heinous it is will not strip him or her of these rights. References: Acoca, L. & James, A. (1996).The Crisis: Women In Prison. Draft report submitted to the Charles E. Culpepper Foundation. San Francisco, CA: National Council on Crime and Delinquency. Hoffman, Paul (1993).   The Feds, Lies and Videotape: The Need for an Effective Federal   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Role in Controlling Police Abuse in Urban America. Southern California Law   Ã‚  Ã‚   Review, 66, 1522. Higham, S. & Stephens J. (2004). New Details of Prison Abuse Emerge. The Washington Post. Retrieved April 30, 2008 from: Human Rights Watch. (1996). All Too Familiar: Sexual Abuse of Women in State Prisons. Retrieved April 30, 2008 from: Human Rights Watch. (2006). No Escape Male Rape in US Prisons. Retrieved April 30, 2008 from: Idaho Observer. (2008). Seven Years Abuse in Idaho Prison. Pro-Liberty Network. Retrieved April 30, 2008 from: It’s Not My Problem. (2008) Men Stuff Organization. Retrieved April 30, 2008 from:  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚ Longley, R. (2007). U.S. Prison Population Tops 2 Million. Retrieved April 30, 2008 from: People Against Prison Abuse. (2008). People Against Prison Abuse. Retrieved April 30, 2008 from: Richie, Beth. (2000). Exploring the Link Between Violence Against Women and Women’s Involvement in Illegal Activity. U.S. Department of Justice. Research on Women and Girls in the Justice System. Stop Prison Abuse. (2008) Stop Prison Abuse. Retrieved April 30, 2008 from: Uchtenhagen, A. (2008). â€Å"Drug Prevention Outside and Inside Prison Walls.† Joomla!. Retrieved April 30, 2008 from: